Proper Citation Practices

Improve research reproducibility with proper citation practices.


Always cite your sources. Citation is required in several instances. Follow these guidelines:

  • Direct quotation: place verbatim text from another source in quotation marks, or indented text for longer quotes, and include a citation to the original source
  • Paraphrase or summary: include a citation when restating or summarizing information from another source, including ideas, processes, arguments, or conclusions
  • Data, research results, information, graphics, or tables: cite the original source when referring to, adapting, or reusing any information from another source

Note that the same rules apply to your own previously published work. When in doubt, include a citation.

Inappropriate use of citations

Citing an irrelevant source for the purpose of artificially inflating citation metrics is considered a breach of ethics. Only cite relevant sources that legitimately contribute to your paper according to the criteria outlined above.