IEEE Collabratec

Report Data Accurately

Readers of your paper rely on you to communicate your research findings fully and report your data accurately. Ensure you are showing the full picture by avoiding fabrication, falsification, and image manipulation during your research and when you are writing or revising your paper. 


  • Fabrication: Inventing data or results.
  • Falsification: Manipulating research materials, equipment, or processes, or changing or omitting data or results¹.
  • Image manipulation: Excessive or inappropriate adjustment of an image that alters the scientific meaning of the image.

¹The Office of Research Integrity, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services

 IEEE Collabratec