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Report Data Accurately

Give readers the full story.

As an author, keep in mind that readers of your paper rely on you to communicate your research findings fully and accurately. Ensure they see the full picture by avoiding fabrication, falsification, and image manipulation during your research and when you are writing or revising your paper.


  • Fabrication: inventing data or results
  • Falsification: manipulating research materials, equipment, or processes, or changing or omitting data or results¹
  • Image manipulation: excessive or inappropriate adjustment of an image that alters the scientific meaning of the image

¹The Office of Research Integrity, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services

 IEEE Collabratec